Takatoshi Ito, Professor at the School of International and Public Affairs of Columbia University, has taught extensively both in the United States and Japan since finishing his Ph.D. in economics at Harvard University in 1979. He taught at the University of Minnesota (1979-1988), Hitotsubashi University (1988-2002), and the University of Tokyo (2004-2014) before assuming his current position in 2015. He held visiting professor positions at Harvard University, Stanford University, Columbia Business School, and the University of Malaya. He has held distinguished academic and research appointments such as President of the Japanese Economic Association in 2004; Fellow of the Econometric Society since 1992; and Research Associate at the National Bureau of Economic Research since 1985. Ito served as Senior Advisor in the Research Department at the International Monetary Fund and as Deputy Vice Minister for International Affairs at the Ministry of Finance of Japan, and was a member of the Prime Minister’s Council on Economic and Fiscal Policy. He is the author of many books, including The Japanese Economy, and more than 60 refereed journal papers. He frequently contributes op-ed columns to the Financial Times. In June 2011, the Government of Japan awarded him with the National Medal with Purple Ribbon in for his excellent academic achievement.